Urology is the study and treatment of a human urinary tracts and the male reproductive system, in particular the surgical speciality associated with these areas. Human organs actually covered by this branch of medicine include the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra, some adrenal glands and the male reproductive organs.
Urology is fairly similar or overlaps with other major branches of medicine such as oncology, gynecology, gastroenterology, nephrology, andrology, pediatric surgery, dermatology, and endocrinology. Furthermore, urology as a treatment can be either non-surgical or surgical depending on the health issue or the appropriate treatment.
Urologists, trained medical professionals who specialise in the field of urology, are trained to diagnose, treat, and manage patients with urological disorders. There are several branches of urology due to the various organs and physiological systems that are covered, these branches are:
- Urologic oncology - is the study and treatment of malignant genitourinary diseases which refers to a cancer of the adrenal glands, prostate, bladder, kidneys, ureters, and male reproductive organs.
- Endourology - refers to minimally invasive surgical procedures where small cameras and instruments perform procedures through the urinary tract
- Andrology - deals with health issues of male reproductive system such as male infertility and frequently overlaps with endocrinology with its focus on hormones.
- Laparoscopy - one of the fastest developing branches of Urology, laparoscopy has replaced some open surgical procedures with robotic assisted surgery.
- Neurourology - is the study and treatment of the nervous system that controls the genitourinary system. Urologists who specialise in this branch will often handle patients with Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and spinal cord injury.
- Reconstructive urology - is the reconstructive surgery that repairs or re-establishes functionality of the genito-urinary tract.
- Paediatrics urology - urologic disorders in children for disorders
- Female urology - is a branch dealing with overactive bladder, pelvic organ prolapse, and urinary incontinence.